Every week I am posting about  everything you need to know about hormones. 

This weeks topic is about wrinkles.

Did you know – wrinkles & aging skin

  • The skin is the body’s biggest organ
  • It reflects our health, our emotions and the passing of time.
  • It ages, like all organs, but we can see how it ages every time we look in the mirror.
  • Aging of all organs is genetically controlled, but the skins aging is also affected by the environment, mainly UV rays, and mechanical wear and tear.
  • The skin doesn’t necessarily show signs of aging in a linear fashion, as you progress from one birthday to the next.
  • How fast your skin ages depends-on intrinsic factors, such as genetics and level of overall health, extrinsic factors, such as excess sun exposure, smoking and even how often you suck through a straw
  • Approx. 30 % of how we age is genetics, so there’s loads you can control
  • You don’t have to look your age – your skin’s health and resiliency can be decades younger than your actual age.
  • Wrinkles are known scientifically as rhytides, which are the creases, folds, lines or ridges in the skin
  • Wrinkles are the symptom of the loss of Collagen
  • They are a natural result of aging
  • Commonly become more permanent from around the age of 30
  • Facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning, or squinting, lead to the development of fine lines and wrinkles at a young age, which deepen as the person gets older.
  • Wrinkles first appear in the areas on the face where the skin naturally folds during facial expressions.
  • Also appears in the areas of the body most exposed to the sun, such as the face and neck, back of the hands, and arms.
  • Develop due to the skin thinning, drying and loss of elasticity through aging and skin damage.
  • A young person’s skin ‘springs back’.
  • As we age, skin loses its flexibility, and doesn’t ‘spring back’, resulting in permanent lines and wrinkles.
  • Black and Asian skin types have less wrinkles due to a thicker dermis which likely protects against facial wrinkles
  • Many people dislike the appearance of wrinkles
  • Thus the anti-aging market in the US is worth over 50 billion dollars per year.

Meet Sally and get to know all about wrinkles

Sneaky factors that accelerate wrinkles

How are wrinkles born

Estrogen & Skin

Wrinkle types

Wrinkle Types

Are your wrinkles due to tight muscles or weak skin and muscles?

Expression lines

Due to the repeated action of the muscles of facial expression creating muscle tension even spasm.

  • Crow’s feet – wrinkles that start at the outer part of the eye and spread over the temples.
  • Frown lines – the horizontal wrinkles on the forehead.
  • Lion’s wrinkles – vertical, inter-brow lines
  • 1, 11, 111 lines – frown lines between eyebrows
  • Bunny Lines – lines on bridge of nose
  • Perioral wrinkles – vertical wrinkles around the lips often seen in smokers
  • Marionette wrinkles – wrinkles that extend the corners of the mouth down towards the chin
  • Cobblestone Chin – the dimples on the chin

Relaxation techniques are important such as

Sagging wrinkles

Due to gravity and sagging, weak skin and muscle tissue, creating the flaccid face folds

  • Nasolabial folds – wrinkles that lie obliquely on each side of the nose to the corner of the mouth, also known as Parenthesis
  • Jowls – the fall of the cheeks
  • Double chin – the fall of the neckline
  • Eyelid ptosis – the fall of the eyelids

Strengthening techniques are important such as


How Wrinkles are Born


  • Research shows that variants in the MMP1 and STXBP5L genes are associated with an increased risk of developing wrinkles due to their actions on Collagen
  • There are 28 types of Collagen used in the body, 12 of which are found in the skin
  • 43 genes known to control its production


  • The decline in the hormones Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone
  • The subsequent decline in the production of Collagen, Elastin and Hyaluronic Acid in the Dermis layer of the skin
  • The loss of subcutaneous fat
  • The thinning of bone, such as cheek bones

Sun / UV exposure

  • UV rays are of three types – UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C rays. The UV-C rays have short wavelengths and do not reach the skin’s surface. Both UV-A and UV-B rays can reach all the layers of the skin – read more about the
  • UV exposure can be the cause of 80% of aging signs.
  • UV rays promote the development of free radicals in the skin. These free radicals can damage and breakdown collagen and elastin fibres.
  • Continuous damage to the collagen fibres results in the skin becoming loose, saggy, and wrinkled.
  • People with fair skin are more affected by UV rays than those with darker skin.
  • Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from sunbathing, tanning booths, and outdoor sports increases the development of wrinkles.
  • People who work in sunlight have a higher chance of early wrinkles.
  • Wearing clothes that cover the skin, such as hats and long sleeves, may delay the development of wrinkles.


  • Accelerates the aging process of skin due to increased free radical exposure and impaired blood supply to the skin
  • Nicotine in cigarettes damage collagen and elastin and leads to the formation of wrinkles.


  • Alcohol dehydrates the skin, and dry skin is more likely to develop wrinkles.

Certain medications

  • Corticosteroids (for asthma, arthritis, skin conditions) breakdown collagen and elastin, thinning the skin and blood vessels making them more prone to rupturing, leading to visible broken capillaries.
  • Certain antibiotics, blood pressure meds, such as ACE inhibitors and diuretics, and anti-seizure medications can cause photosensitivity, making your skin extra sensitive to sun damage.

Collagen Glycation

  • The accumulation of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) in the skin resulting from excess sugar consumption, and diabetes.
  • More AGE molecules in the skin increase the chances of collagen degradation.
  • Vitamin C Deficiency
  • Vitamin C deficiency is known to decrease collagen production in the body

Protein deficiency

  • Collagen is a protein made from proline, glycine and hydroxyproline
  • Amino acid lysine is essential and must be obtained from foods, such as meat, fish and dairy, especially parmesan cheese
  • Amino acids proline and glycine are found in foods, such as chicken and pork skin
  • Hydroxyproline is produced in the body, which requires Vitamin C

Sneaky Factors that can Accelerate Skin Aging

Poor Diet

  • Too many highly processed or sugary foods can cause dramatic spikes in blood sugar and insulin, which can trigger chronic, low-grade inflammation at the cellular level, such as in skin cells
  • High blood sugar can speed up skin aging through a process called glycation – sticky blood
  • Also known as Advanced Glycation End-products /AGE molecules, such as glucose sticking to collagen and elastin making them stiffer and less functional, which can cause skin sagging, wrinkles and the ‘aged look’
  • Cut back on carbs and sugars
  • Increase your intake of antioxidant-rich foods – such as berries, citrus fruits, kiwi, pineapple, papaya, because “antioxidants fight AGEs,
  • Use skin-care products with antioxidant ingredients such as vitamins C and E, resveratrol, green tea and grapeseed.

Sleeping on the Same Side

  • Yes sleep is important, “while you sleep, your body initiates the repair process – more about sleep next week
  • BUT if you constantly sleep on the same side of your face, you will ‘iron’ in the wrinkles by mechanically wrinkling the skin, deforming the skin’s collagen and impeding circulation to the skin, making the creases permanent.
  • Cultivate a habit of sleeping on your back or at least alternating sides – not easy but worth a try, changing pillow shape may help
  • Silk pillowcases are gentler on the skin and may cause less sleep lines.

Being Depressed

  • Depression can show up on your face as well as in your disposition
  • You can see when someone is depressed – how is that?
  • Depressed faces tense specific facial muscles, grimacing or frowning, and repetition of these facial expressions become etched into the skin in the form of fine lines and wrinkles
  • Depression is also associated with elevated cortisol levels, which can weaken collagen and may cause a decrease in growth hormone, which inhibits the skin’s ability to repair itself at night
  • Depressed people don’t eat, sleep, exercise or take care of their skin the way they should
  • Take steps to improve your ‘blues’ by exercising, getting outside, going for counselling, etc.
  • Reducing wrinkles may also improve symptoms of depression because our facial expressions send signals to the brain which then produces the appropriate emotion – remember the feel-good blog and the bit about how lifting the corners of the mouth changes your mood.

Emotional Mirroring

  • You may have the same wrinkles as your mum or dad or even your partner if you have been together for a long time
  • Some couples actually start to look more like each other as they age together
  • We like to mirror others emotional state – it just feels more comfortable, that means we share the same facial expressions and there by the same wrinkles
  • Look at old photos of your parents and see if you can recognise where your wrinkles originate

Yo-Yo Dieting

  • Repeatedly gaining and losing weight can cause your skin to continuously stretch and contract, which can take a toll on its elasticity, especially as you get older
  • Take steps to get and keep your weight in the normal range.

Certain Medications

  • Oral or topical corticosteroids for asthma, arthritis or skin conditions, etc. will breakdown collagen and elastin, creating thin skin and blood vessels prone to rupture, leading to broken capillaries
  • Certain antibiotics, blood pressures meds, such as ACE inhibitors and diuretics, and anti-seizure medications can cause photosensitivity, making your skin extra sensitive to sun damage
  • Since stopping these medications may not be an option, you need to be ‘sun-smart’
  • Avoid over exposure though enough to get Vitamin D production, wearing sun-protective clothing and using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with SPF 30 or higher every day and reapplying it regularly.
  • Using a retinoid cream at night can stimulate collagen production, which can in turn help offset thinning skin and other undesirable changes. Though it makes the skin more sun-sensitive thus even more important to wear sunscreen during the day. Buy yours here.

Frequent Flyer

  • As you know the sun’s UV rays are more intense at high altitudes, which is why your skin may burn more easily when you’re in the mountains
  • What you may not know is you also get more UV exposure when you’re on an airplane – UV rays penetrate the plane’s windows
  • So flying high gives the double whammy problem of UV and dehydration
  • This is why studies show that flight attendants have an increased risk of melanoma
  • Bring a moisturizer with SPF on the plane, avoid alcohol and salty foods, and drink lots of water during the flight
  • If you’re sitting next to the window, pull the shade down.

Professional & Medical Wrinkle Treatments

Topical retinoids derived from vitamin A

  • Aim to reduce fine wrinkles hyperpigmentation, and skin roughness
  • They do this by increasing collagen production in the skin
  • Beware, using retinoids increases photosensitivity so the skin burns quicker, frequent application of sunscreen is essential
  • Other possible adverse effects include, dryness, itching, a burning sensation, tingling, discoloured areas
  • The amount of retinoid in wrinkle creams vary in type and concentration. Concentrations in an over-the-counter-wrinkle-creams will be significantly lower than a prescription one
  • The concentration will affect how well they work
  • I use Retirides 0.25mg/g which can be bought in Spain without prescription – make sure you follow the instructions.


  • A surgical procedure that involves the controlled wearing away, or abrasion, of the upper layers of skin with a rapidly rotating device.
  • Aims to remove fine wrinkles, moles, tattoos, acne scars, and other types of scars.
  • May cause scabbing, swelling, and changes in skin colour.
  • These symptoms generally fade after 2 weeks, but some signs may remain for several months.
  • You will not achieve your desired result immediately and may not see any improvements for several months.


  • A less invasive procedure. It involves spraying microcrystals of aluminum oxide across the surface of the skin.
  • Some practitioners use a handheld device with fine diamond crystals and a powerful vacuum to remove the particles as they brush it over the skin
  • This type of treatment aims to give a fresher and smoother appearance to the skin and reduce the appearance of lines and wrinkles, enlarged pores, coarse skin, and sun damage
  • The results are only temporary, and often requires repeated treatments.

Non-ablative lasers and pulsed light sources

  • Laser and light source therapy treatments destroy the outer layer of the skin
  • When the wound heals from laser or light surgery, the new skin is smoother and tighter
  • Ablative laser resurfacing can take several months to heal
  • Newer therapies using laser technology may heal more quickly
  • May require several treatments before their skin feels firmer and appears refreshed, but recovery times are faster.

Radiofrequency (RF) devices

  • Heat the underlying dermis and stimulate the development of new collagen fibres, which tightens the skin and decreases wrinkles
  • It may take several months before you notice a decrease in wrinkles
  • In a 2013 study over 90% of participants who underwent RF were satisfied with the results at 1 month and 6 months after treatment.


  • Botulinum toxin type A, commonly used as a rat poison, blocks the chemical signals that cause muscle contraction
  • Doctors use it to treat some medical conditions, such as spasticity in muscles of the neck or bladder
  • A cosmetic professional will use it to reduce wrinkles by injecting small doses of Botox into targeted muscles
  • The muscles can no longer contract and tighten thus the skin flattens, giving a less wrinkled and smoother appearance
  • Botox can decrease the lines on the forehead, the 1, 11, and 111 lines between the eyes, and “crow’s feet” around the corners of the eyes
  • According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, a person will see results after a few days to a week. The changes usually last for 3–4 months.

Chemical peels

  • A chemical peel involves applying a chemical solution to the desired areas, causing the dead skin to shed and eventually peel off. The regenerated skin tends to be smoother than the old skin
  • You can buy some types of chemical peels without a medical license. However, it’s best to consult a medical healthcare professional for this treatment.


  • A facelift, or a rhytidectomy, is a type of cosmetic surgery that aims to give a more youthful look
  • Usually involves the removal of facial skin and fat, with or without tightening the underlying tissues
  • A study in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery suggests that some elements of a facelift should last for about 5 ½ years, but it may lose some effect around the neck
  • Healing times may be lengthy, and there will be bruising and swelling for several weeks post-surgery.


  • Soft tissue fillers include collagen, hyaluronic acid, or fat
  • A cosmetic professional will inject fillers into deeper face wrinkles, plumping and smoothing them out to give the skin more volume
  • Swelling and bruising in the treated areas can be experienced for a short period
  • Treatments are temporary, and may require regular injections
  • The results depend on several factors, including where the wrinkles are and their depth.

Daily Wrinkle Tips & Tricks

Reset muscle tension

  • Stimulate motor points in muscles and reset muscle tension, ie. make the muscle more relaxed or make it more tense
  • Cosmetic needling, DIY or professional is a very effective way to reset motor points. Read about our DIY course
  • Book a treatment with me.

Face yoga

Increase Skin Stem Cell production

  • Stem cells which create dermal fibroblasts, the cells which produce collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid are stored around the sebaceous glands in the skin, and have been named “stem cell reservoirs”
  • Pressure stimulates proliferation, ie. activates the stem cells in the stem cell reservoirs
  • Beauty treatments consisting of various mechanical stimulation such as “pressure”, “tapping”, “twisting”, “stretching”, etc., and combinations thereof increase stem cell proliferation and thereby fibroblast development and thereby collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid production
  • GuaSha energy treatments are excellent at creating pressure and stimulating stem cells. Read more here.

Use the code SALLY10 and get 10% off when you purchase your stone

Keep an eye on webpage a new course combining motor points and stem cell stimulation is coming soon.

Improve Collagen Production

Important Nutrients

Foods with all the Nutrients

  • Bone broth
  • Organ meats
  • Animal connective tissue, such as chicken and pork skin
  • Fruits / antioxidant-rich foods.

Estrogen & Skin

  • Maintains skin thickness by increases collagen
  • Maintains skin hydration by increasing hyaluronic acid
  • Maintains barrier function
  • Sebum levels are higher in postmenopausal women receiving Estrogen which increases skin hydration
  • Decreases skin wrinkling due to more collagen and elastin
  • Increases cutaneous wound healing by regulating the levels of a cytokine.
  • Topical estrogen accelerates and improves wound healing in elderly men and women.
  • Low Estrogen may increase scaring.

Oil Cleansing 101

  • Natural Skincare Technique keeps the skin hydrated and glowing and hydrated skin wrinkles less
  • Utilises the “like attracts like” principle of chemistry
  • The oils bind with the fatty ‘grime’ on your skin from sebum (own production) and oil-based makeups and sunscreens even environmental pollutants which can build up on the skin, become trapped in follicles, and contribute to acne
  • Gentle way to remove makeup, soothe sensitive skin, and tame unrelenting breakouts.
  • Using oils instead of soaps or detergent cleansers help protect the natural lipid layer of the skin and the good bacteria that live there
  • Supporting these bacteria can help protect against infection like acne
  • Oils used for cleansing may also have healing properties, important nutrients, or other skin-boosting benefits, especially for dry, mature skin
  • Rub about a teaspoon of facial oil onto the dry skin of your face. Don’t forget under your chin and around your jawline.
  • Massage for 30 – 120 seconds
  • Use a dampened washcloth or microfiber cloth to gently wipe away the oil
  • Optionally, perform a second cleaning with a gentle cleanser
  • Perfect time to apply some more oil to your face and do your GuaSha ritual and or perform some face yoga
  • Finish with your preferred skin products though it might not be necessary as the skin already feels supple and hydrated
  • That’s it!
  • Depending on your skin type you can use the oil cleansing method nightly if you want or every other night or third night
  • Note, that when you first start oil cleansing, you might experience some redness, dryness, or oiliness. This may be because of the type of oil or just a reaction to a change in routine. Stick with it for 7 – 10 days if the symptom continues try changing the oil.

Best Cleansing Oils

  • Castor oil (always dilute with another oil as it is too astringent – 1:1 is the best combination)
  • Avocado oil
  • Olive oil
  • Jojoba oil
  • Sweet almond oil
  • Apricot kernel oil
  • Sesame oil
  • Argan oil
  • Calendula oil
  • Rosehip oil
  • Tamanu oil.

The oils most commonly used are 1:1 olive oil and castor oil

  • Increase the amount of olive oil for dry skin
  • Olive oil is rich in vitamins and antioxidants and is important for hydration.
  • Increase the amount of castor oil for oily, acne-prone skin
  • Castor oil is antibacterial and acts like an astringent cleaner Beware the astringent action of castor oil can cause skin drying
  • Regardless of what oils you choose, it’s important to buy high-quality oils that don’t have added perfumes and or dyes
  • Look for cold-pressed, unrefined, virgin oils that are meant to be used on the skin, rather than food-grade oils.

Which Ingredients to Look for in a Slow-Age Face Cream

Price matters as many of the effective ingredients are expensive.

  • Sunscreen
  • Retinol / Retinoic acid
  • Vitamin C
  • Hyaluronic acid
  • CBD oil from cannabis
  • Oligo epidermal growth factor / EGF-peptides
  • Hydroxy acids, AHA; BHA & PHA (for peeling effect)
  • Tea extracts
  • Grape seed extract
  • Vitamin B3 – Niacinamide
  • CoQ10.

What is Collagen?

  • Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body, about one-third of the body’s protein composition
  • Think of it as the “glue” that holds your body together
  • It’s one of the major building blocks of connective tissue, such as bones, skin, muscles, tendons, and ligaments
  • Also found in other body parts, including blood vessels, corneas, and teeth, even the gut
  • Made from amino acids, most of which are the non-essential amino acids proline and glycine.
  • From late 20s, early 30s collagen begins to deteriorate and production slows and shows in the face as fine lines and wrinkles.

Types of Collagen

  • 28 different types of Collagen found in different parts of the body
  • 4 main types of Collagen – Type I, Type II Type III and Type IIII

Type I

  • Accounts for 90% of your body’s collagen and is made of densely packed fibres.
  • It provides structure to skin, bones, tendons, fibrous cartilage, connective tissue, and teeth.

Type II

  • Made of more loosely packed fibres and found in cartilage, which cushions your joints.

Type III

  • Supports the structure of muscles, organs, such as liver and spleen and arteries
  • Often found alongside Type I collagen.

Type IV

  • Main collagen component of the basement membrane in skin
  • Functions as a barrier between tissue compartments.

What causes loss of Collagen?

  • Age
  • Diets high in refined sugars
  • Stress
  • Nutrient deficiencies such as protein, specific vitamins and minerals
  • Smoking
  • Sun exposure.

Collagen Foods

  • meat, fish, and eggs
  • best sources of collagen are found in tendons and cartilage
  • bone broth – See recipe 

Other Necessary Nutrients

  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin C
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Copper
  • Omega-3 fatty acids protect the body’s collagen stores from free radical damage, best sources fatty fish like anchovies, sardines, herring, mackerel, salmon and fish oil supplements – Buy here
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Benefits of taking Collagen supplements

  • Improves skin elasticity
  • Keeps skin looking younger
  • Keeps skin firmer and hydrated
  • Increases skin smoothness
  • Helps reduce the appearance of cellulite
  • May help hydrate hair and nails
  • Help hair and nails grow faster and thicker
  • Can help reduce inflammation
  • Helps prevent joint breakdown, especially in individuals with osteoarthritis
  • Athletes have less joint pain when using a supplement than those that don’t
  • Studies shown that those with inflammatory bowel diseases have less collagen in the lining of their intestines
  • Collagen is 30% glycine and glycine plays a role in repairing leaky-gut
  • Can helps restore the lining of the stomach and intestines and improves nutrient absorption
  • Keeps you feeling full longer, ie. increases satiety
  • Helps with muscle gain when combined with strength training.

Collagen Supplements

  • Created from connective tissue in animals like bones, skin, and hooves and fish scales.
  • Chose high-quality collagen from grass-fed, pasture raised animals or wild caught fish, and whose products have been third-party tested for purity.
  • Hydrolyzed Collagen aka Collagen Peptides are collagen proteins broken down into a smaller units called peptides, which are more easily absorbed
  • It is tasteless, odourless powder that can be added into hot and cold liquids
  • Also found as capsules
  • There are no sources of collagen that are vegan as Collagen is only produced in humans and animals.
  • Recommended serving size is approx. 10-20g collagen peptides which is roughly 1-2 scoops
  • Collagen and gelatin are often used interchangeably because gelatin is actually collagen that has been heated
  • They have the same amino acid profile, but Collagen can be dissolved in both cold and warm liquid, whereas Gelatin “gels” in cold liquid but dissolves in hot
  • Collagen is just another form of protein and is therefore safe to take for everyone
  • Can be a good replacement for your traditional protein powder if you are eating animal foods. If you are vegan or vegetarian collagen should not be your main source of protein since it is missing essential amino acids your body needs
  • Adding collagen into your diet is easy since it dissolves in pretty much everything
  • Try adding it to a smoothie, juice, water, tea or coffee, or boosting the protein content of your favourite foods. Buy yours here.

Questions? Please don't hesitate to contact me

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