TOPIC · HEALTH · IDEAL BODY WEIGHT · EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW

Every week I am posting about  everything you need to know about hormones. This weeks topic is about ideal body weight

Did you know – Ideal Body Weight / IBW

 

  • Many ask me –  How much should I weigh?
  • However, there is not 1 IBW
  • There are a number of different factors that influence IBW
  • These include age, muscle-fat ratio, height, sex, and body fat distribution, etc.
  • Having excess weight can affect a person’s risk of developing a number of health conditions, including obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular problems
  • There are multiple IBW formulas that have been developed; and they all have advantages and disadvantages
  • IBW is a clinical standard that incorporates height, gender, and age, but does not represent the percentage of body fat and muscle mass all of which will vary from person to person
  • IBW is used by the medical world to determine the correct dosage of prescribed medications for patients
  • IBW is used in sports to measure body weight in athletes according to a classification scale
  • IBW is the optimal weight associated with maximum life expectancy for a given height
  • Before the use of BMI to quantify obesity, Total Body Weight (TBW) above 20% of IBW was defined as being obese
  • There are multiple IBW formulas that have been developed all of which have their advantages and disadvantages and you’ll find them all in this blog
  • It is a misconception that IBW accurately reflects an individual’s health and as such IBW remains controversial
  • It’s not what you weigh that is important it is what your weight is composed of.

Meet Sally and get to know all about Ideal body weight

Intro to fat week

How to calculate ideal body weight

Causes of underweight

Insulin 101

Calculating Ideal Body weight / IBW

Body mass index (BMI)

  • BMI is a common tool
  • Measuring a person’s weight in relation to their height.
  • BMI of less than 18.5 means that a person is underweight
  • BMI of between 18.5 and 24.9 is ideal.
  • BMI of between 25 and 29.9 is overweight.
  • BMI over 30 indicates obesity.

Problems with BMI

  • Does not consider waist or hip measurements
  • Does not consider proportion or distribution of fat
  • Does not consider proportion of muscle mass
  • Both of which have an enormous impact on health
  • Many athletes have little body fat and more muscle mass, resulting in a high BMI but this does not mean their weight is unhealthy

BMI can offer a ‘rough’ idea of whether or not a person’s weight is healthy but should not be the only measure to evaluate IBW.

Weight and Height Guide

  • Determines how much a person’s weight should be related to their height.
  • This measurement was a standard before BMI was designed. SEE CHART HERE.

Waist size

  • Can be a measurement of health
  • Health is not determined by the amount of body fat alone but also by where the fat is located.
  • Fat located inside your abdomen (belly-fat) is an important risk factor for diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, fatty liver and other metabolic problems
  • Fat on your hips and thighs you may think less attractive but it’s less associated with health problems.

Men

  • Low risk for associated diseases – Under 94 cm / 37 inches
  • Moderate risk for associated disease – 94-102 cm / 37 – 40 inches
  • Severe risk for associated disease – Over 102 cm / 40 inches

Women

  • Low risk for associated diseases – Under 80 cm / 31.5 inches
  • Moderate risk for associated disease – 80- 88 cm / 31.5 – 34.6 inches
  • Severe risk for associated disease – Over 88 cm / 34.6 inches

Problems with Waist size

  • Does not accurately measure a person’s total body fat percentage
  • Does not measure muscle-to-fat ratio
  • Does not inform about IBW 

Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)

  • Compares waist size with that of their hips
  • Higher waist measurement in proportion to hips, the greater the risk of disease
  • WHR may be a better predictor of heart attacks and other health risks than BMI

How to

  • Waist circumference – measure midpoint between the lower margin of the last palpable ribs and the top of the iliac crest / upper pelvic bone
  • Hip circumference – measure widest portion of the buttocks, with the tape parallel to the floor
  • Divide waist measurement by the hip measurement eg. 

– Waist 30″ / 76 cm
– Hips 38″ / 97 cm
– WHR = 0.78

What does it mean?

Males

  • Low risk – Below 0.9
  • Moderate risk – 0.9 to 0.99
  • High risk – 1.0 or over

Females

  • Low risk – Below 0.8
  • Moderate risk – From 0.8 to 0.89
  • High risk – 0.9 or above

Problems with WHR

  • Does not accurately measure a person’s total body fat percentage
  • Does not measure muscle-to-fat ratio
  • Does not inform about IBW

Waist-to-height ratio / WtHR

  • Another tool that might predict the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and overall mortality more effectively than BMI.
  • Waist measurement less than half the height has a lower risk of a number of life-threatening health complications.

How to

  • Divide waist size by height
  • Healthy weight / IBW 0.5 or less
  • 4 inches / 163cm tall, should have a waist measurement below 32 inches / 81cm
  • 72 inches / 183cm tall, should have a waist measurement below 36 inches / 91cm
  • The above measurements give a WtHR of just under 0.5.

Problems with WtHR

  • Does not measure a person’s total body fat percentage
  • Does not measure muscle-to-fat ratio

Height minus 100 = IBW

  • Only works in cm and kilos
  • Only really works for males (maybe females need to deduct 105 or 110
  • Eg. 196 cm tall minus 100 = 96 IBW = 96 kilos
  • Eg. 188 cm tall minus 100 = 88 IBW = 88 kilos

Problems with height minus 100 = IBW

  • Does not measure a person’s total body fat percentage
  • Does not measure muscle-to-fat ratio

 Body Fat Percentage

  • Fat weight divided by total body weight
  • Total body fat includes essential and storage fat.

  • Essential fat
    – Necessary for survival
    – Plays a role in a wide range of bodily functions
    – Essential fat % in Men – 2 to 4 %
    – Essential fat % in Women – 10 to 13 %
  • Storage fat
    – Stored subcutaneous and visceral
    – Protects the internal organs
    -Can be used for energy
  • Is affected by activity levels

Athletes:
M – 6–13% / F- 14–20%
Fit non-athletes:
M-14–17% / F-21–24%
Acceptable:
M – 18–25% / F-25–31%
Overweight:
M – 26–37% / F- 32–41%
Obesity:
M 38% or more / F42% or more

How to

  • Skinfold calipers
  • Most common ways of measuring body fat using special calipers to pinch the skin, such as thigh, abdomen, chest (for men) or upper arm (for women).
  • The techniques provide an accurate reading within around 3.5 percent
  • Body Composition Analysers / Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (my favourite)
    – A method of describing what the body is made of, differentiating between fat, protein, minerals, and body water
    – Measures body weight, fat mass, muscle mass, and body fat percentage, bone mass
    – If you live in Lanzarote book a time with me for you measurement sw@sally-walker.com
  • Hydrostatic body fat measuring, or “underwater weighing”
  • Air densitometry, which measures air displacement
  • Body Volume Index / BVI – 3D technology analyses overall body shape, identifying where fat is distributed
  • DEXA – Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry measures fat in the abdomen

 Conclusion

  • None of the above can give a 100-percent accurate reading of IBW, but the estimates are close enough to give a reasonable assessment.
  • Combining them may be the best way to get an accurate idea of whether or not you need to take action.

Causes of Underweight – BMI under 18.5

  • Genetics
  • Improper metabolism and absorption of nutrients

– Gut problems
– Liver problems
– Thyroid problems

  • Lack of food and nutrients

-Poverty
-Excessive dieting
-Fad diets

  • Poor appetite due to

-Loss of sense of taste or smell (maybe zinc deficiency)
-Stomach pains
-Heartburn / reflux
-Feeling full quickly

  • Excessive strenuous exercise

-mostly in women
-excessive endurance exercise

  • Smoking
  • Medical Drugs that supress appetite

-Sedatives
-Some antibiotics
-Immunotherapy
-Chemotherapy
-Recreational drugs, like cocaine, cannabis, and amphetamines

  • Eating disorders

-Anorexia nervosa
-Bulimia

  • Associated medical conditions

-Type 1 diabetes
-Hyperthyroidism
-Cancers
-Addisons disease – Adrenal dysfunction – decreased Cortisol production
-Chronic gut disorders like IBS, Crohn’s
-Asthma
-Chronic liver or kidney disease

  • Associated mental & emotional conditions

-Anxiety
-Depression
-Panic attacks
-Stress
-Grief
-Negative body image.

Weight Gain 101

Correct underlying causes

  • See the article – Causes of Underweight and address the relevant cause

Diet

  • Eat the required macro nutrients every meal, rather than count calories. READ MORE HERE
  • Increase intake of nutrient dense foods rather than empty fillers such as processed carbs and sugars
  • Eat regular meals, ie stop meal skipping
  • Practice mindful eating, ie. avoid eating on the run
  • Supplementation, such as protein shakes

Exercise

Emotional Support

  • Seek professional help to work through any emotional issues
  • NLP courses for changing perception of past experiences can be valuable

Appetite stimulants

  • Fish oil may stimulate appetite, may improve digestion and reduce feelings of bloating or fullness. BUY YOURS HERE. Log-in with 4265940
  • Certain medical drugs may increase appetite

– Antidepressants, such as mirtazapine or amitriptyline
– Antipsychotics, particularly chlorpromazine and haloperidol
– Tetrahydrocannabinol (found in cannabis), in the US, medicinal cannabis may be prescribed for severe appetite loss, such as that caused by cancer, AIDS, or severe levels of persistent anxiety.
– Antihistamines.

Common Symptoms of Malnourishment

  • Anaemia
  • Hair loss
  • Osteoporosis, even for young people, especially sports women
  • Amenorrhea (absence of menstruation)
  • Infertility
  • Complications during pregnancy if gestational weight gain is too low
  • Increased mortality rates comparable to those seen in morbidly obese people.

Causes of Overweight – BMI over 25

  • Genetics
  • Overeating

– Junk foods
– High levels of processed carbs in the diet
-Food availability
– Misinformation

  • Disturbed metabolism and absorption of nutrients

– Gut problems
– Liver problems
– Thyroid problems

  • Social issues

– Lack of money to purchase healthy foods
– Lack of safe places to walk or exercise

  • Lack of exercise
  • Lack of sleep

– Shift work
– Insomnia
– Poor sleep habits

  • Drugs that can increase appetite

– Antidepressants, such as mirtazapine or amitriptyline
– Antipsychotics, particularly chlorpromazine and haloperidol
– Tetrahydrocannabinol (found in cannabis), in the US, medicinal cannabis may be prescribed for severe appetite loss, such as that caused by cancer, AIDS, or severe levels of persistent anxiety.
– Antihistamines
– Oral contraceptives
–  Corticosteroids such as prednisone
– Blood pressure medications, such as beta-blockers

  • Eating disorders

– Emotional eating
– Binge eating
– Food addiction

  • Associated medical conditions

– Insulin resistance
– Type 2 diabetes
– Hypothyroidism
– PCOS
– Digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn’s disease
–  Cushings disease – Adrenal dysfunction – increased Cortisol production
– Chronic liver or kidney disease

  • Associated mental & emotional conditions
  • Sadness
    – Boredom
    – Depression
    – Stress
    – Grief.

Weight Loss 101

Correct underlying causes

  • See the article – Causes of Overweight and address the relevant cause

Monitor blood sugar & insulin

  • Stabilising blood glucose and insulin levels is key
  • Monitor blood glucose with Continuous Blood Glucose Monitors – 4 – 7 mmol/L
  • Fasting Insulin – below 8.0mIU/ml, preferably under 5. TEST YOU’RE HERE

Sleep

  • Biggest fat burning time is 9pm – 2 am
  • In bed latest 10pm

Diet

  • Eat the required macro nutrients every meal, rather than count calories. READ MORE HERE
  • Keep carbs as low as possible until you regain blood sugar control and insulin sensitivity
  • TRE – time restricted eating somewhere between 6 – 10 hours as many times a week as possible – READ MORE HERE
  • Intake nutrient dense foods that keep you felling satisfied longer, such as organ meats and saturated fats

Exercise

  • H:I:T intermittent strength exercises
  • See my blog on strength and flexibility – READ MORE HERE
  • More muscle increases fat burning while you’re resting

Emotional Support

  • Seek professional help to work through any emotional issues
  • NLP courses for changing perception of past experiences can be valuable

Appetite suppressants

  • Eat more protein – min 25 – 30g per meal / 100g per day
  • Eat more heathy saturated fats – min 30g per meal
  • Drink water before every meal
  • Coffee especially mixed with butter or coconut oil or cream
  • Exercise before eating
  • Switch to dark chocolate
  • Mindful eating
  • Stress less
  • Increase serotonin levels with 5HTP supplements. BUY YOURS HERE.
  • Certain medical drugs may suppress appetite
  • Sedatives
  • Some antibiotics
  • Immunotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Recreational drugs, like cocaine, cannabis, and amphetamines.

How to Test Thyroid Function

Comprehensive Thyroid Panel

Blood test at your doctors or private testing

BUY YOUR TEST HERE

  • TSH
  • Free T4
  • Free T3
  • rT3
  • TBG – thyroid binding globulin
  • Autoimmune – Anti TPO, Anti TG, TRAB

Combining Blood and Urine

Private testing. BUY YOUR TEST HERE 

  • TSH
  • Free T4
  • Free T3
  • TBG – thyroid binding globulin
  • Autoimmune – Anti TPO
  • Iodine
  • Selenium
  • Bromine
  • Lithium
  • Arsenic
  • Cadmium
  • Mercury

Other Blood tests which may help shed some light

  • Fasting blood sugar
  • HbA1c – long-term blood sugar
  • Fasting insulin
  • CRP – inflammation
  • ESR – inflammation
  • Fatty acid test – Omega 3 to Omega 6 balance, where Omega 6 increases inflammation. BUY YOUR TEST HERE.  Login with 4265940
  • ANA – Autoimmune
  • GGT – lever
  • Ferritin – iron and inflammation
  • Vit D

 

 

 

 

 

Thyroid Hormone Blood Levels

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

  • Normal range for an adult: 0.27 – 4.50 IU/L

T4: thyroxine

  • Normal range for an adult: 60 – 140 nmol/l

FT4: Free T4 or free thyroxin

  • Normal range for an adult: 12 – 22 – pmol/L

T3: triiodothyronine

  • Normal range: 1,10 – 2,50 nmol/l

FT3: Free T3 or free triiodothyronine

  • Normal range: 3.1 – 6.8 pmol/L

Additional blood tests might include

Thyroid antibodies indicating autoimmune problems

  • TPO – thyroid peroxidase antibodies
  • TG – thyroglobulin antibodies
  • TSI – thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins
  • TBI – thyroid blocking immunoglobulins

Insulin 101

Insulin 101

  • Is an anabolic hormone
  • Secreted by the pancreas, an organ situated just behind the stomach
  • Insulin assists glucose to enter the cells
  • Insulin acts as a key unlocking or stimulating the insulin receptors / keyholes on the surface of cells
  • Insulin binds or locks on to the receptors sending a signal into the cells. This calls ‘glucose transporters’ up to the surface which pick up glucose
  • Insulin resistance is when the glucose transporters don’t pick up glucose, due to more than enough glucose in the cells
  • Insulin also allows amino acids to enter cells for cell protein maintenance
  • Insulin stores extra fat and sugar as fat, which the body can use in the future.

2 types of Insulin

  • Basal insulin – produced round the clock, regardless of whether you eat or not, keeping resting blood sugar levels under control
  • Bolus insulin – produced immediately in response to food.

Symptoms of insulin resistance

  • Acne
  • Weight gain, especially belly fat
  • Fatigue after eating
  • Frequent dizziness
  • Feeling weak or shaky
  • Needing to eat frequently for energy
  • Hormone imbalances, including PCOS and infertility in women
  • Craving carbohydrate foods (such as pasta, bread, sugar)

Questions? Please don't hesitate to contact me